Various historical records prove that the Islamic sultanates are not stand alone, but have very close relations with the Islamic caliphate, especially the Ottoman caliphate, based in Turkey. This paper will briefly review some historical evidence that shows the relationship of unity between the Islamic sultanates in the region with the Khilafah Islamiyah Nusantara.
Recognition of the Khilafah Islamiyah Nusantara
Influence of the presence of the caliph of the archipelago's political life has been felt since the early days of the establishment of Caliphate (read: Daulah Islamiyah). Muslims do futuhat success against the Persian Empire and occupied large parts of the Eastern Roman, like Egypt, Syria, and Palestine, under the leadership of Umar ibn al-Khattab had placed Daulah Islamiyah as a superpower of the world since the 7th century AD When the Caliphate was in the hands of the Umayyad dynasty (660-749 AD), ruler of the archipelago, though Hindus still-acknowledged greatness of empire.
Recognition of the greatness of the caliphate evidenced by the two letters sent by the Maharaja of Srivijaya to the Umayyad caliph. The first letter was sent to Muawiyyah, and the second letter was sent to Umar ibn Abdul Aziz.1 first letter was found in a diwan (archive, pen.) Umayyads by Abdul Malik bin Abu Umayr submitted to the ATS-Tsaqofi Ya'yub, which was then submitted to Al-Haytsam bin Adi. Al-Jahizh who heard the letter from Al-Haytsam narrating a preliminary letter as follows:
"From the King of Al-Hind which animal cages containing a thousand elephants, (and) a palace made of gold and silver, which served the kings daughter, and who has two great rivers that irrigate the tree aloes, to Muawiyah ...." 2
The second letter documented by Abd Rabbih (H/860-940 246-329 AD) in his Al-Iqd Al-Farid. Pieces of the letter as follows:
"From the King of Kings ...; who was a descendant of a thousand kings ... to the King of Arabia (Umar ibn Abdul Aziz) who do not associate other gods with God. I have sent you a gift, which is actually a gift that not too much, but just a sign of friendship, and I want you to send me someone who can teach Islam to me, and explained to me its laws. "3
In addition, Farooqi found an Ottoman archive containing a petition from the Sultan Ala al-Din Shah Riayat to Sultan Sulayman al-Qanuni brought Huseyn Effendi. In this letter, the Ottoman ruler of Aceh acknowledged as caliph of Islam. In addition, the letter also contained a report on Portuguese military activities that cause major problems for the Muslim traders and pilgrims en route to Mecca. Therefore, assistance is urgent to save the Ottoman Muslims who continue to be slaughtered Farangi (Portuguese) kafir.4
Sulayman Al-Qanuni H/1566 died in 974 AD But the petition of Aceh have the support of Sultan Selim II (974-982 H/1566-1574 M), which issued orders for an expedition of the imperial military to Aceh. September Around 975 H/1567 M, Admiral Turkey in Suez, Kurtoglu Hizir Reis, was ordered to sail towards Aceh with a number of expert rifle fire, soldiers and artillery. These troops were ordered to be in Aceh for Sultan.5 however still required by the way, is only part of a large fleet of up to Aceh since transferred to quell the rebellion in Yemen, which ended 979 years H/1571 M.6 According to historical records, Turkish troops arrived in Aceh in the years 1566-1577 AD as many as 500 people, including experts on firearms, shooters, and technical experts. With this help, Aceh attacked the Portuguese in Malacca in 1568 M.7
Kurtoglu Hizir Reis presence with the fleet and his army was greeted with joy by the Muslims of Aceh. They were welcomed with great ceremony. Kurtoglu Hizir Reis later given the title as the governor (wali) of Aceh, which is the eighth official delegation caliph placed in the area. This indicates that the relationship is not the Archipelago with the Ottoman Caliphate brotherly relations but the extent a state of political relations. Presence in Aceh over the guardian of Turkey suggests that the Aceh is an integral part of the Khilafah Islamiyah.
On the other hand, many political institutions wither in the archipelago got his sultan of certain rulers in the Middle East. In 1048H/1638 M, Lord Bantam, Abd al-Qodir (ruling 1037-1063H/1626-1651) awarded the title of sultan by the Sharif of Mecca as a result of the special mission sent for that purpose to the Holy Land. Meanwhile, famous Acehnese sultanate's close relations with the Turkish authorities and Haramayn Ustmani. Likewise Palembang and Makassar, who helped establish a special relationship with the ruler Makkah9. At that time, the rulers of Mecca is an integral part of the Ottoman caliphate, based in Turkey.
Viewed from the use of the term, the empire of Islam in the archipelago associate themselves inseparable from the Caliphate. Some books call this a classic Jawi. Kings saga Pasai (pp. 58, 61-62, 64), for example, the official name of the empire Samudea Pasai as "Ocean of Dar al-Islam." The term Dar al-Islam also used the book of laws to describe the empire Pahang Pahang. The Nur al-Din al-Raniri, in Bustan al-Salatin (for example, on pp. 31, 32, 47), calling the sultanate of Aceh as the Dar al-Salam. The term is also used in Pattani when the local authority, Paya Tu Naqpa, converted to Islam and took the name Sultan Ismail Shah Alam Zill-fi God is enthroned in the land of Pattani Dar al-Salam (Hikayat Patani, 1970:75).
In classical Islamic political science, the world was divided between the Dar al-Islam and Dar al-Harb. Dar al-Islam is an area that applies Islamic law and its security is in the hands of Muslims. While the Dar al-Harb is the opposite of the Dar al-Islam. Use of the term "Dar al-Islam" or "Dar al-Salam" shows that rulers receive Melayu Nusantara Islamic geopolitical conception of the division of two regions of the world. The concept of geopolitics is increasingly crystallized when the nations of Europe-started by the "nation Peringgi" (Portuguese), which was then followed by other European nations, especially Holland and England began rampant in the Indian Ocean region and the Straits of Malacca (descent al-Salatin, 1979 :244-246). They perform physical occupation and spread Christianity through mission and zending.
Ottoman Empire, as mentioned by Hurgronje (1994, 1631 pages), 10, is pro-active in giving attention to the sufferings of Muslims in Indonesia by way of open government representatives (consulate) in Batavia in the late 19th century. To the Muslims who are in Batavia, the Turkish consul promised to fight for the emancipation of the rights of Arabs were the equal of the Europeans. In addition, Turkey will also see to it that all Muslims in the Netherlands East Indies Netherlands free of oppression.
More than all that, Aceh many visited the scholars from various other parts of the Islamic world. Sharif of Mecca sent his envoy to Aceh a cleric named Sheikh Abdullah Kan'an as a teacher and muballigh. Around the year 1582, came two great scholars of the Arab countries, namely Sheikh Abdul Khayr and Shaykh Muhammad Yamani. In addition, in Aceh itself born of great scholars like Al-Sumatrani Shamsuddin and Abdul Rauf al-Singkeli. 11
Abdul Rauf Singkel got an offer from the Sultan of Aceh, Safiyat al-Din Shah to the post with the title Kadi Qadi al-Malik al-Adil is already vacant for some time because of Nur al-Din al-Raniri back to Ranir (Gujarat). After doing a variety of considerations, Abdul Rauf tersebut.12 accept, therefore, he officially became a qadi with the title of Qadi al-Malik al-Adil. Furthermore, as a Qadi, the Sultan Abd Rauf asked to write a book as a reference (qaanun) the application of Shari'a Islam.13 book was later given the title al-Tullab Mir'at.
Various historical fact was further confirmed the existence and recognition of the close relationship between Aceh and the Archipelago with the Ottoman Caliphate. In fact, not limited to relations of friendship but a relationship of brotherhood or 'unity' as an integral part of the Ottoman Caliphate (Dar al-Islam).
Hajj Travel guards Nusantara
The existence of the Ottoman Empire as the Islamic empire, especially after the successful conduct futuhat of Constantinople, the Byzantine capital, at 857 H/1453 M, caused a embedded in the hearts of Turkish Muslims of the archipelago. The famous name for Turkey in the archipelago is the "Sultan of Rum." 14 The term "Rum" spread to mention the Turkish Ottoman Empire. Starting this period, political and cultural supremacy Rum (Ottoman Empire) to spread to various parts of the Muslim world, including to Nusantara.15
Political and military power of the Ottoman Caliphate began to be felt in the Indian Ocean region in the early 16th century. As the caliph of the Muslims, the Ottoman Empire has a position as khadimul haramayn (guard of two sacred ground, namely Mecca and Medina). In this position, the Ottoman Sultan to take special steps to ensure security for the pilgrimage. All of the pilgrimage routes in the Ottoman territory placed under its control. Hajj caravan itself can directly go to Makkah without obstacles or fear of facing Portuguese disorders. At 954 H/1538 M, Sultan Sulayman I (ruled 928 H/1520-1566 M) sends a strong fleet under the command of the governor of Egypt, Khadim Sulayman Pasha, to release all the Portuguese-controlled pelabuan to secure shipping pilgrimage to Jeddah.16
The Ottoman Turks also secures the pilgrimage route from the region west of Sumatra by putting the navy in the Indian Ocean. Angkataan Ottoman presence in the Indian ocean sea after H/1498 AD 904 not only secures the pilgrimage to Islam Nusantara, but also resulted in increasingly large shares of trade in Turkey in this region. In turn, this gives an important contribution to the growth of economic activity as a side effect hajj journey. At the same time also increase the presence of the Portuguese fleet in the Indian Ocean, but able to enforce the Ottoman naval supremacy in the Persian Gulf, Red Sea and the Indian Ocean during the 16th century. 17
In regard to the security of the pilgrimage route, Selman Reis (w 936/1528), laksanama Turkey in the Red Sea, continue to monitor the progression of Portuguese troops in the Indian Ocean, and report it to the central government in Istanbul. One report quoted Obazan sound is as follows:
"(Portuguese) also controls the port (Pasai) on the big island called Syamatirah (Sumatra) ... It is said, they had 200 people there infidel (Pasai). With 200 people disbelieve, they also control the Malacca pelabuan who are faced with ... Sumatra. Therefore, when our ships were ready and, InsyaAllah, move against them, then their total destruction is not inevitable, because one can not endorse the fort another, and they can not form a united opposition. "18
This report is quite reasonable, because in the year 941 AD H/1534, commanded a squadron of Portuguese Diego da Silveira origin facing a number of ships off the Gujarat and Aceh chapter el-Mandeb Strait at the mouth of the Red Sea.
Portuguese continued to expand its influence not only to the Middle East but also to the Indian Ocean. Portuguese King Emanuel I openly convey the main purpose of the expedition, saying, "Surely the purpose of searching the sea road to India was to spread Christianity, and rob the wealth Eastern people '19. The Ottoman Caliphate was not standing still. In 925H/1519 M, Portuguese in Malacca digemparkan by the news of the release of the fleet 'Ottoman' to liberate the Muslim occupation of Malacca from the infidels. The news is of course very encouraging Muslims setempat.20
When Sultan Ala al-Din al-Qahhar Riayat Shah ascended the throne in Aceh in the year 943 AD H/1537, he seemed aware of the needs of Aceh to ask for military aid to Turkey. Not only to expel the Portuguese in Malacca, but also to do futuhat into other areas, especially remote areas of Sumatra, such as the Batak area. Al-Kahar use Turkish, Arabic and Turkish troops Abesinia.21 of 160 people plus 200 soldiers from Malabar, they form an elite group of armed forces in Aceh. Furthermore, Al-Kahhar deployed to conquer territory in the interior of the Batak of Sumatra in the year 946 AD H/1539 Mendez Pinto, who watched the war between the forces of Aceh with the Batak, Aceh reported the return of the fleet under the command of a Turk named Hamid Khan, the nephew of the Ottoman Pasha in Kairo.22
A historian of the University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Lukman Thaib, acknowledge the assistance of the Ottoman Empire to do futuhat of the region around Aceh. According Thaib, this is an expression of solidarity with Muslims who make it possible for Turkey to do a direct attack against the area around Aceh.23 In fact, the Ottoman Empire to build a military academy in Aceh named 'askeri Beytul Mukaddes' which turned into 'Askar Baitul Makdis' more in line with Acehnese dialect. This is a center of military education that gave birth to the heroes in the history of Aceh and Indonesia24. Thus, the relationship with Turkey is very close to Aceh. Aceh as if it is part of Turkish territory. Acehnese Muslims considered the issue of Turkey as a problem in the country who must be resolved.
Nur Al-Din Al-Raniri in Bustan al-Salathin narrated, the Sultan Ala al-Din Shah Al-Qahhar Riayat sent envoys to Istanbul to face the "Sultan of Rum." This emissary named Huseyn Effendi who speaks fluent Arabic. He came to Turkey after a pilgrimage M haji.25 In June 1562, the Acehnese delegation arrived in Istanbul to ask for military assistance to face the Portuguese Empire. When the ambassador was able to escape from attacks by the Portuguese and arrived in Istanbul, he managed to get the help of Turkey, which is helping Aceh's military greatness thus generating sufficient to subdue the ARU and Johor on H/1564 973 M.26
Aceh's relations with the Ottoman Empire continues, especially to maintain peace in Aceh from Portuguese attack. According to a writer of Aceh, the successor to Al-Qahhar Mansyur Both the Sultan Shah (985-998 H/1577-1588 M) renew the political and military relationship with Utsmani.27 This is justified by the historical sources of the Portuguese. Bishop Jorge de Lemos, secretary of the Portuguese Viceroy in Goa, in the year 993 AD H/1585, report to the Lisbon that Aceh has been back in touch with the Ottoman Caliph to obtain military aid to launch a new offensive against the Portuguese. The next ruler of Aceh, the Sultan Ala al-Din Shah Riayat (988-1013 H/1588-1604 M) was also reported to have continued also with the Turkish political hubunghan. It was said that the Ottoman Caliphate to send a star even had the honor to the Sultan of Aceh, and grant permission to the ships flying the flag of Aceh to Turki.28
The ships or boats used in every war in Aceh consists of an agile small boats and big ships. Big ships or junks that sailed the seas to Jeddah from Turkey, India, and Gujarat. These last two areas are part of the Ottoman Caliphate. According to the Court, the ships are quite large, measuring 500 to 2000 ton.29 large ships equipped with cannons from Turkey and other weapons used to attack Aceh from the European colonizers who interfere in the Muslim areas of Aceh Nusantara.30 really appears as a very great power because feared Portuguese weaponry reinforced by experts from the Turkish caliphate as an aid to Aceh.31
According to the sources of Aceh, Sultan Iskandar Muda (1016-1046 H/1607-1636 M) sends a small fleet of three ships, which reached Istanbul after two and a half year voyage through the Cape of Good Hope. When the mission returned to Aceh, they are given the help of guns, 12 military experts, and a letter that is a decision about the Ottoman persahabataan and relations with Aceh. The twelve military experts described as a hero in Aceh. They also say such an expert that can help the Sultan Iskandar Muda, not only in building a strong fort at Banda Aceh, but also in building the palace kesultanan.32
The impact of the success of the Ottoman Caliphate facing the Portuguese in the Indian Ocean is very large. Including their ability to defend the holy places and roads leading to the pilgrimage; continuity of exchange of Indian goods to European traders in the markets of Aleppo, Cairo and Istanbul, as well as business continuity routes between India and Indonesia in the Far East via the Arabian Gulf and the Sea Merah33.
Some imperial relations in the archipelago with the Ottoman Caliphate, based in Turkey seems clear. For example, Islam was introduced Buton (South Sulawesi) 16M century. Genealogy of the Kings of Buton indicate that after converted to Islam, Lakilaponto inaugurated as 'sovereign' with the title of Qaim ad-Din (religious enforcers), which was inaugurated by Sheikh Abd al-Wahid from Mecca. Since then, he was known as Sultan Marhum. Since it is also the name of the sultan was worshiped in khuthbah Friday. According to local sources, use of the title 'Sultan' This happens after consent is obtained from the Sultan of Turkey (there is also a mention of the ruler of Mecca). And Sheikh Wahid also send news (about it, pen.) To the Sultan of Rum (the Caliph) in Turki34. This reality shows that Mecca was in the leadership of Turkey, and Buton has a relationship 'structural' in the form it is still simple with the Ottoman Empire through the intercession of Makkah Sheikh Wahid.
Meanwhile, in an area currently known as West Sumatra, Minangkabau Alam ruler who called himself the "Aour Allum Maharaja of Kings" is believed to be the sultan's younger brother Ruhum (Rum). Minangkabau people believe that they are descendants of the first ruler Caliph Rum (Ottoman), who was assigned to be in the region tersebut35 Sharif. This provides information that the empire has any connection with the Ottoman Caliphate.
In addition there is the empire in the Nusantara (Indonesia) which are directly related to the Ottoman Caliphate, there were also some imperial associated indirectly, namely through the other empire, for example, the sultanate of Ternate. In the 1570s, when war-soya Soya against the Portuguese, the sultan of Ternate, Baabullah, assisted by the Sangaji of Nusa Tenggara are famous for its fleet gurap and Demak by Javanese soldiers. Likewise Aceh with a mighty maritime fleet strength has blocked 30 000 warships to blockade the port of Sumatra and the delivery of food, ammunition, Indian and Portuguese via the Strait of Malacca. Ternate Demak36 enemy means enemy.
Based on some of these reality shows that the empire of Islam in the archipelago has a relationship with the Ottoman Caliphate. The form is in the form of trade relations, military, politics, propaganda, and power.
The response of the Muslims of Indonesia on the unification of Ummah
When the Khilafah Islamiyah are on hard times, where some regions began to occupied by the colonizers, there was an effort to continuously strengthen the unity of Islam that was driven by the Sultan Abdul Hamid II. He stated, "We shall strengthen our ties with Muslims in other parts of the earth. We shall move closer toward each other and in a very strong intensity. Therefore, there is no more hope in the future unless this unity. "37 This is the idea that became known as Pan-Islamism. Any effort to strengthen the unity of Islam to Indonesia (Dutch Indies).
Snouck Hourgronje, advisor of the Netherlands, continues to convey information to the Dutch East Indies colonial government that there is a movement of pan-Islamism efforts to persuade the kings and chiefs of Dutch East Indies (Muslims) to come to the Palace of Sultan Abdul Hamid II in Istanbul. Short-term objectives to accomplish in Batavia, Snouck further, is to get a status of equality to the Arabs and later to all Muslims equal of the Europeans. If the goal has been reached then the people of Islam is not difficult to again have a higher status than the Europeans, who then could even discredit them entirely. Dutch East Indies colonial government is very worried that if the Muslims know that the Sultan Abdul Hamid II to provide scholarships for Muslim youth. At the expense of Sultan Abdul Hamid II, they can enter schools to receive the highest scientific education and find a deep consciousness of every Muslim superiority over those who disbelieve, in-depth awareness and opprobrium should they receive that are not allowing themselves to be governed by by infidels. If they have completed their studies and had made the pilgrimage to Mecca, they are expected to play in developing the Islamic thought in the area mereka38.
This pooling of efforts continue to be strengthening. Until the year 1904 there have been seven to eight consuls ('messenger' pen.) Ever placed in the Indies Belanda39 Ottoman Caliphate. Among the activities of the consul is distributing manuscripts of the Koran in the name of the sultan, and printing the works of Islamic theology in the language of Malays are printed in Istanbul. Among the book is the commentary of al-Quran at the title page called "The Sultan of Turkey King of all Muslims' 40. The term king here actually refers to the word al-Malik, which means ruler, and everyone is Islamic term referring to Muslims. So, the title shows the declaration of the Caliph that he was the ruler of the Muslims worldwide. This indicates that the Ottoman empire continued to strive to unite the Malays into which the empire, including through the dissemination of the Koran.
In response to the union movement of Islam by the Ottoman Caliphate, in the Dutch East Indies, there are several organizations of Islamic movements in the Dutch East Indies who support the movement. Abu Bakr Atjeh mention among these organizations is Jam'iyat Khoir founded on July 17, 1905 by Arab descent. Articles of this Islamic movement in the Netherlands East Indies was published in newspapers and magazines in Istanbul, including the magazine Al-Manar. Khalifah Abdul Hamid II, who lived in Istanbul would ever send his envoy to Indonesia, named Ahmed Amin Bey, at the request of the association is to investigate the situation of Muslims in Indonesia. As a result, the Dutch East Indies colonial government set a ban for the Arabs visited several areas tertentu41.
Organization of the Islamic movement who emerged as a positive response to this rally is Sarikat Islam. Events dikibarkannya flag Ottoman Empire at the National Congress Sarikat Islam in Bandung in 1916, as a symbol of solidarity with fellow Muslims and opposition to colonial rule, show it. At that time, one of which is the Khilafah Ustmaniyah is the call of jihad in the name of the Caliph to all Muslims, including Indonesia, known as Java. In between these calls is:
"O believers, consider how many other countries to colonize the Muslim world. India is spacious and has a population of one hundred million Muslims invaded by a small group of enemies of the British infidels. 40 million Muslims java colonized by the Dutch. Morocco, Al-Algeria, Tunisa, Egypt and Sudan suffer under the grip the enemy of God and His Messenger. Kuzestan Also, under pressure from the faith the enemy invaders. Persian split apart. Even the seat of empire too, by the enemies of God are always opposed to all kinds of ways' 42.
This reality shows how the Ottoman empire to give support and assistance to the Muslims of Indonesia and see it as a whole body, even calling to free themselves from imperialist enemy of faith. In this case the Muslims responded positively to the effort of strengthening the unity of Muslims worldwide.
Response Indonesian Muslims over the collapse of the Ottoman Caliphate
On March 3, 1924, Mustafa Kamal la'natullahu 'alaih decided to conduct the dissolution of the Caliphate which he called "boils since the Middle Ages' 43. On the morning of 1924, it was announced that the National Assembly has approved the abolition of the Caliphate and the separation of religion from state affairs. At night, the Caliph was forcibly evicted by police and militer44 unity. Officially, the Ottoman caliphate collapsed in the March 3, 1924.
Destruction of the Muslim leadership throughout the world are shaking nature, including Indonesia. In response to the collapse of the Caliphate, a Caliphate Committee was established in Surabaya on October 4, 1924 with Chairman Wondosudirdjo (later known as Wondoamiseno) of Islam and vice-chairman Sarikat CRC Wahab Hasbullah. The aim is to discuss the invitation of the congress in Kairo45 caliphate. This meeting was followed up with Al-Islam congress organized the third Indian in Surabaya on 24 to 27 December 1924. Congress was attended by 68 Islamic organizations that represent the central leadership (hoofd bestuur) and branch (department), and received written support from 10 branch organizations. This congress was also attended by many scholars from all over Indonesia. Important decisions of this Congress is involved in the movement of empire, and sent representatives to be considered as representative of the Indonesian Muslims to the world congress Islam46. The Congress decided to send a delegation to Cairo, which consists of Surjopranoto (Sarikat Islam), Haji Fachruddin (Muhammadiyah), and CRC Wahab from among tradisi.47
Because there are differences of opinion with the Muhammadiyah, CRC Wahab and three backers among the scholars held a meeting with elders from Surabaya, Semarang, Pasuruan, Lasem, and Pati. They agreed to establish Merembuk Committee Hijaz. The Committee is built with two purposes: first to offset the Khilafat Committee which gradually fell into the hands of a reformer classes, and second, to call upon Ibn Su'ud new rulers in the Arab lands that have traditionally religious habits can diteruskan48. This committee which changed its name to Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) at a meeting in Surabaya on January 31, 1926. This meeting put the issue remains as a problem utama49 Hijaz. Although there are differences of opinion, but among the Muhammadiyah and NU Sarikat among Islamic and both give great attention to the collapse of the Khilafah Islamiyah and view it as the main problems of the Muslims.
This attitude is born from the belief that the Khilafah is a common leadership for Muslims. Indonesian Muslims when they view the Sultan of Turkey as Khalifah50. Among the Indonesia leaders of the Islamic Sarikat, HOS Cokroaminoto, states that the Caliph is not solely for Muslims in the Arabian peninsula, but also for Muslims of Indonesia. Also stressed that the caliphate is a right with fellow Muslims and not the domination of the nation tertentu51. More firmly again, Cokroaminoto also states other than the two holy cities of Mecca-Medina, the caliph is the world's Muslims. He suggested to send a delegation to Congress. The goal was to "mempertoendjoekan participle of Islamic oemat sedoenia", and "the absolute need of the sun all oesaha who weighed for oemat Islam in our country." In addition, find out about the continuation khalifah52 election. In fact, he menganalogikan Muslims are like one body. Therefore, if Muslims do not have the caliph then "as if the agency is not headed '53.
Based on some of the historical record can be concluded that the empire of Islam in Indonesia has a very close relationship with the Ottoman Caliphate. Even the evidence describing the empire of Islam in Indonesia as an integral part of the Khilafah Islamiyah.
Only, when the power of the Ottoman Caliphate began to weaken, the Western infidel invaders (UK) through its agent, Mustafa Kamal, successfully meruntuhkannya. As a result, institutions that unifying the Muslim world had vanished and the Muslim countries of the region was divided under colonial rule.
While in Indonesia itself, post-colonialism physical (military), some characters who want to build Indonesia's political system based on Islam, also experienced a failure due to 'treason'. As a result, Indonesia has become a country that 'independence' on the basis of secularism and nationalism. This makes the disunity of Muslim countries continue and make the Muslims remain in a weak condition.
Referring to the historical fact that there are, it seems clear that efforts to unite Muslims in many Muslim countries, including Indonesia, on the basis of Islam is a historical necessity. For the Muslims of Indonesia, the struggle to continue the life of Islam and to unite the lands of Islam in the Caliphate is not simply a form of obedience to the commands of Allah SWT. Activity is actually also an effort to continue the history, in addition to efforts to further the cause of the Sultan and former cleric Saleh who had brought the Khilafah Islamiyah Nusantara. Conversely, opposition to this effort is a form of denial of the history of Indonesia, in addition to the denial of Allah's command. [Hizbuth tharir]